Denim fabric varies in colour, weight and elasticity. It is a plain weave fabric that is woven with a coloured yarn in the warp and a white yarn in the weft, it is constructed by passing the warp thread over two threads in the weft before going under one, this produces the well known denim texture and look.
Corduroy fabric is a cut-pile fabric and is described using the term wales. Wales are the raised ridges that run vertically down the fabric. The higher the number the more ridges that will fit into one inch of fabric.
Canvas fabrics are plain weave fabrics that have a substantial weight to them.
Chambray is similar to denim because it is a plain weave fabric woven with a coloured yarn in the warp and white yarn in the weft. However, unlike denim the warp and weft threads alternate one over the other.
Cotton Twill is a cotton fabric with a diagonal parallel rib pattern.